CGAL 4.13  2D Boolean Operations on Nef Polygons

#include <CGAL/Nef_polyhedron_2.h>
An instance of data type Nef_polyhedron_2<T>
is a subset of the plane that is the result of forming complements and intersections starting from a finite set H
of halfspaces.
Nef_polyhedron_2
is closed under all binary set operations intersection
, union
, difference
, complement
and under the topological operations boundary
, closure
, and interior
.
The template parameter T
is specified via an extended kernel concept. T
must be a model of the concept ExtendedKernelTraits_2
.
Exploration  Point location  Ray shooting
As Nef polyhedra are the result of forming complements and intersections starting from a set H
of halfspaces that are defined by oriented lines in the plane, they can be represented by an attributed plane map \( M = (V,E,F)\). For topological queries within M
the following types and operations allow exploration access to this structure.
Implementation
Nef polyhedra are implemented on top of a halfedge data structure and use linear space in the number of vertices, edges and facets. Operations like empty
take constant time. The operations clear
, complement
, interior
, closure
, boundary
, regularization
, input and output take linear time. All binary set operations and comparison operations take time \( O(n \log n)\) where \( n\) is the size of the output plus the size of the input.
The point location and ray shooting operations are implemented in two flavors. The NAIVE
operations run in linear query time without any preprocessing, the DEFAULT
operations (equals LMWT
) run in sublinear query time, but preprocessing is triggered with the first operation. Preprocessing takes time \( O(N^2)\), the sublinear point location time is either logarithmic when LEDA's persistent dictionaries are present or if not then the point location time is worstcase linear, but experiments show often sublinear runtimes. Ray shooting equals point location plus a walk in the constrained triangulation overlayed on the plane map representation. The cost of the walk is proportional to the number of triangles passed in direction d
until an obstacle is met. In a minimum weight triangulation of the obstacles (the plane map representing the polyhedron) the theory provides a \( O(\sqrt{n})\) bound for the number of steps. Our locally minimum weight triangulation approximates the minimum weight triangulation only heuristically (the calculation of the minimum weight triangulation is conjectured to be NP hard). Thus we have no runtime guarantee but a strong experimental motivation for its approximation.
Example
Nef polyhedra are parameterized by a socalled extended geometric kernel. There are three kernels, one based on a homogeneous representation of extended points called Extended_homogeneous<RT>
where RT
is a ring type providing additionally a gcd
operation, one based on a Cartesian representation of extended points called Extended_cartesian<NT>
where NT
is a field type, and finally Filtered_extended_homogeneous<RT>
(an optimized version of the first). The following example uses the filtered homogeneous kernel to construct the intersection of two halfspaces.
File Nef_2/nef_2_intersection.cpp
After line (*) N3
is the intersection of N1
and N2
. The member types of Nef_polyhedron_2< Extended_homogeneous<NT> >
map to corresponding types of the standard CGAL geometry kernel (type equality in pseudocode notation):
The same holds for the types Line
and Direction
in the local scope of Nef_polyhedron_2<...>
.
Classes  
class  Explorer 
a decorator to examine the underlying plane map. More...  
class  Topological_explorer 
An instance D of the data type Topological_explorer is a decorator for interfacing the topological structure of a plane map P (readonly). More...  
Types  
enum  Boundary { EXCLUDED, INCLUDED } 
construction selection. More...  
enum  Content { EMPTY, COMPLETE } 
construction selection More...  
enum  Location_mode { DEFAULT, NAIVE, LMWT } 
selectionflag for the point location mode. More...  
typedef unspecified_type  Line 
the oriented lines modeling halfplanes.  
typedef unspecified_type  Point 
the affine points of the plane.  
typedef unspecified_type  Direction 
directions in our plane.  
typedef unspecified_type  Polygons_tag 
tag for calling polygon constructor.  
typedef unspecified_type  Polylines_tag 
tag for calling polyline constructor.  
typedef unspecified_type  Object_handle 
a generic handle to an object of the underlying plane map. More...  
Creation  
Nef_polyhedron_2 (Content plane=EMPTY)  
creates an instance N of type Nef_polyhedron_2<T> and initializes it to the empty set if plane == EMPTY and to the whole plane if plane == COMPLETE .  
Nef_polyhedron_2 (Line l, Boundary line=INCLUDED)  
creates a Nef polyhedron N containing the halfplane left of l including l if line==INCLUDED , excluding l if line==EXCLUDED .  
template<class Forward_iterator >  
Nef_polyhedron_2 (Forward_iterator it, Forward_iterator end, Boundary b=INCLUDED)  
creates a Nef polyhedron N from the simple polygon P spanned by the list of points in the iterator range [it,end) and including its boundary if b = INCLUDED excluding the boundary otherwise. More...  
template<class Forward_iterator >  
Nef_polyhedron_2 (Forward_iterator it, Forward_iterator end, Polygons_tag)  
The iterator range [it, end) defines a set point ranges, each of which defines the boundary of simple polygon.  
template<class Forward_iterator >  
Nef_polyhedron_2 (Forward_iterator it, Forward_iterator end, Polylines_tag)  
The iterator range [it, end) defines a set point ranges, each of which defines a polyline.  
Operations  
void  clear (Content plane=EMPTY) 
makes N the empty set if plane == EMPTY and the full plane if plane == COMPLETE .  
bool  is_empty () 
returns true if N is empty, false otherwise.  
bool  is_plane () 
returns true if N is the whole plane, false otherwise.  
bool  contains (Object_handle h) 
returns true iff the object h is contained in the set represented by N .  
bool  contained_in_boundary (Object_handle h) 
returns true iff the object h is contained in the \( 1\)skeleton of N .  
Object_handle  locate (const Point &p, Location_mode m=DEFAULT) 
returns a generic handle h to an object (face, halfedge, vertex) of the underlying plane map that contains the point p in its relative interior. More...  
Object_handle  ray_shoot (const Point &p, const Direction &d, Location_mode m=DEFAULT) 
returns a handle h with N.contains(h) , that can be converted to a Vertex_/Halfedge_/Face_const_handle as described above. More...  
Object_handle  ray_shoot_to_boundary (const Point &p, const Direction &d, Location_mode m=DEFAULT) 
returns a handle h , that can be converted to a Vertex_/Halfedge_const_handle as described above. More...  
Explorer  explorer () 
returns a decorator object that allows readonly access of the underlying plane map. More...  
Constructive Operations  
Additionally there are operators There are also the corresponding modification operations There are also comparison operations like  
Nef_polyhedron_2< T >  complement () 
returns the complement of N in the plane.  
Nef_polyhedron_2< T >  interior () 
returns the interior of N .  
Nef_polyhedron_2< T >  closure () 
returns the closure of N .  
Nef_polyhedron_2< T >  boundary () 
returns the boundary of N .  
Nef_polyhedron_2< T >  regularization () 
returns the regularized polyhedron (closure of interior).  
Nef_polyhedron_2< T >  intersection (const Nef_polyhedron_2< T > &N1) 
returns N \( \cap\) N1 .  
Nef_polyhedron_2< T >  join (const Nef_polyhedron_2< T > &N1) 
returns N \( \cup\) N1 . More...  
Nef_polyhedron_2< T >  difference (const Nef_polyhedron_2< T > &N1) 
returns N \( \) N1 .  
Nef_polyhedron_2< T >  symmetric_difference (const Nef_polyhedron_2< T > &N1) 
returns the symmectric difference N  T \( \cup\) T  N .  
typedef unspecified_type CGAL::Nef_polyhedron_2< T >::Object_handle 
a generic handle to an object of the underlying plane map.
The kind of object (vertex, halfedge, face)
can be determined and the object can be assigned to a corresponding handle by the three functions:
bool assign(Vertex_const_handle& h, Object_handle)
bool assign(Halfedge_const_handle& h, Object_handle)
bool assign(Face_const_handle& h, Object_handle)
where each function returns true
iff the assignment to h
was done.
enum CGAL::Nef_polyhedron_2::Boundary 
enum CGAL::Nef_polyhedron_2::Content 
enum CGAL::Nef_polyhedron_2::Location_mode 
CGAL::Nef_polyhedron_2< T >::Nef_polyhedron_2  (  Forward_iterator  it, 
Forward_iterator  end,  
Boundary  b = INCLUDED 

) 
creates a Nef polyhedron N
from the simple polygon P
spanned by the list of points in the iterator range [it,end)
and including its boundary if b = INCLUDED
excluding the boundary otherwise.
Forward_iterator
has to be an iterator with value type Point
. This construction expects that P
is simple. The degenerate cases where P
contains no point, one point or spans just one segment (two points) are correctly handled. In all degenerate cases there's only one unbounded face adjacent to the degenerate polygon. If b == INCLUDED
then N
is just the boundary. If b == EXCLUDED
then N
is the whole plane without the boundary.
Explorer CGAL::Nef_polyhedron_2< T >::explorer  (  ) 
returns a decorator object that allows readonly access of the underlying plane map.
See the manual page Explorer
for its usage.
Nef_polyhedron_2<T> CGAL::Nef_polyhedron_2< T >::join  (  const Nef_polyhedron_2< T > &  N1  ) 
returns N
\( \cup\) N1
.
Note that "union" is a keyword of C++ and cannot be used for this operation.
Object_handle CGAL::Nef_polyhedron_2< T >::locate  (  const Point &  p, 
Location_mode  m = DEFAULT 

) 
returns a generic handle h
to an object (face, halfedge, vertex) of the underlying plane map that contains the point p
in its relative interior.
The point p
is contained in the set represented by N
if N.contains(h)
is true. The location mode flag m
allows one to choose between different point location strategies.
Object_handle CGAL::Nef_polyhedron_2< T >::ray_shoot  (  const Point &  p, 
const Direction &  d,  
Location_mode  m = DEFAULT 

) 
returns a handle h
with N.contains(h)
, that can be converted to a Vertex_/Halfedge_/Face_const_handle
as described above.
The object returned is intersected by the ray starting in p
with direction d
and has minimal distance to p
. The operation returns an empty Object_handle
if the ray shoot along d
does not hit any object h
of N
with N.contains(h)
. The location mode flag m
allows one to choose between different point location strategies.
Object_handle CGAL::Nef_polyhedron_2< T >::ray_shoot_to_boundary  (  const Point &  p, 
const Direction &  d,  
Location_mode  m = DEFAULT 

) 
returns a handle h
, that can be converted to a Vertex_/Halfedge_const_handle
as described above.
The object returned is part of the \( 1\)skeleton of N
, intersected by the ray starting in p
with direction d
and has minimal distance to p
. The operation returns an empty Object_handle
if the ray shoot along d
does not hit any \( 1\)skeleton object h
of N
. The location mode flag m
allows one to choose between different point location strategies.